Did you know that in the Cathedral of Santiago there is a gate that opens only 14 times in a Century, and to go through it, first it is necessary to demolish a wall with a small hammer? It´s true! It is the Holy Gate and its origin is directly related to the Apostle Santiago and the phenomenon of the pilgrimage.
DOWN WITH THIS WALL!
This gate is located at the back of the Cathedral, at Plaza de la Quintana. Only opens in Holy Year and this occurs when the 25th of July falls on Sunday, which happens with a cyclic frequency of 6, 5, 6 and 11 years (in Rome, this happens once every 25 years). If it is the case, the gate opens on the 31th of December of the year before to the Holy Year, and it remains open along 12 months. But before it opens it is necessary to do an ancient ritual.
Before anyone can enter or leave through the Holy Door, the Archbishop of Santiago (the head of a procession) uses a hammer to knock three times on the stone wall blocking the door (symbol of the Camino hardness), and asks to the Apostle Santiago for permission to enter, and then follows by the demolition of the wall. In this video of EFE Agency you can see the ritual.
THE PAPAL BULL OF ALEJANDRO Y CALIXTO
But…. When did all this tradition start? Well, we should tell you about two important dates that explain the origin of this tradition in Santiago de Compostela.
On the twelfth century Pope Calixto II instituted the Jacobean Holy Year, as I told you before, the July 25 that falls on Sunday. It would be then that the pilgrims who visit the tomb of the Apostle Santiago would gain the Jubilee or plenary indulgence, in the same way that happened in Rome (but in this case every 25 years), a right that was confirmed years later by a Papal Bull by Pope Alexander III. These enactments popularized the pilgrimage to the Galician city during the Middle Ages.
The other relevant date is the period between 1616 to 1661, when the facade of Holy Gate and the Gate itself were built. Since its first opening until nowadays it has had the same “opening hours”. But its original orientation is slightly different from the one at the beginning to the one we see today. In a first place was oriented to East, with the intention that the pilgrims “see the light” just at the moment they are going through the Gate. That´s why on a Holy Year the pilgrims who arrive to Santiago go through this Gate to go into the Cathedral.
¿QUIENES SON ESAS FIGURAS?
On top of the Holy Gate we can clearly see the figures of St. James dominating the Plaza de la Quintana, who along with his disciples Theodore and Anastasio welcome the travelers. The attached figures represent apostles, prophets and patriarchs, but while the figure of Santiago was expressly made for the gate, these twenty-four figures (which originally were only twelve) are reused figures from the late Romanesque cathedral choir conducted by Maestro Mateo (who also designed the Portico de la Gloria).
The Holy Gate of the Cathedral of Santiago is not unique, there are a few more distributed in several Christian churches along several European cities (like the Holy Gate of Vaticano, as an example). Still on the topic and to finish with this post, I would like to tell you a couple of things: Firstly, following the calendar of Holy Years, and knowing that 2010 was the last one, there will not be another Holy Year until 2021, therefore you will have to wait a little bit before you can access the Cathedral through this gate… unless the cabildo of the Cathedral of Santiago decides to open it because of the announcement by Pope Francis that this year will be an extraordinary Holy Year. Secondly, even if this happens, you don´t need to go to Santiago to go through a Holy Gate or to get the Compostela; you could do it at Villafranca del Bierzo, because it has its own Gate, and they can issue the Compostela when is Holy Jubilee Year.
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Header photo: MarisaLR (Wikipedia).
Translation: Elvira Sánchez.